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2013年考研英语一真题及答案

来源:2017-04-12 15:09:24

  对于考研的同学来说,英语复习是一件令人头疼的事,为了帮助大家顺利的通过考试,中公考研小编为大家整理了2013年考研英语一真题及答案的相关信息,希望对大家的复习有所帮助。

  2013年硕士研究生入学考试英语一试题

  Section I  Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that  1   the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by  2   factors. But Dr. Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big  3   was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with.  4  , he theorised that a judge  5   of appearing too soft  6   crime might be more likely to send someone to prison  7   he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.

  To  8   this idea, he turned to the university-admissions process. In theory, the  9   of an applicant should not depend on the few others  10   randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr Simonsohn suspected the truth was  11   .

  He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews  12   by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had  13   applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale  14   numerous factors consideration. The scores were  15   used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the Graduate Management Admission Test, or GMAT, a standardised exam which is 16    out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.

  Dr Simonsonh found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one  17   that, then the score for the next applicant would  18   by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to  19   the effects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been  20   .

  1. [A] grants [B] submits [C] transmits [D] delivers

  2. [A] minor [B] objective [C] crucial [D] external

  3. [A] issue [B] vision [C] picture [D] moment

  4. [A] For example [B] On average [C] In principle [D] Above all

  5. [A] fond [B] fearful [C] capable [D] thoughtless

  6. [A] in [B] on [C] to [D] for

  7. [A] if [B] until [C] though [D] unless

  8. [A] promote [B] emphasize [C] share [D] test

  9. [A] decision [B] quality [C] status [D] success

  10. [A] chosen [B] studied [C] found [D] identified

  11. [A] exceptional [B] defensible [C] replaceable [D] otherwise

  12. [A] inspired [B] expressed [C] conducted [D] secured

  13. [A] assigned [B] rated [C] matched [D] arranged

  14. [A] put [B] got [C] gave [D] took

  15. [A] instead [B] then [C] ever [D] rather

  16. [A] selected [B] passed [C] marked [D] introduced

  17. [A] before [B] after [C] above [D] below

  18. [A] jump [B] float [C] drop [D] fluctuate

  19. [A] achieve [B] undo [C] maintain [D] disregard

  20. [A] promising [B] possible [C] necessary [D] helpful

  Section II   Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scold her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her. Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to department stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.

  This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with feverish world described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”. In the last decades or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent releases, and more profit. Those labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable——meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that——and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.

  The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-plus stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage, overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals.

  Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma. “Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable, and wasteful,” Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year——about 64 items per person——and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.

  Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes——and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can’t be knocked off.

  Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment——including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection Line——Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to.

  21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her

  [A] poor bargaining skill.

  [B] insensitivity to fashion.

  [C] obsession with high fashion.

  [D] lack of imagination.

  22. According to Cline, mass-market labels urge consumers to

  [A] combat unnecessary waste.

  [B] shut out the feverish fashion world.

  [C] resist the influence of advertisements.

  [D] shop for their garments more frequently.

  23. The word “indictment” (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to

  [A] accusation.

  [B] enthusiasm.

  [C] indifference.

  [D] tolerance.

  24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?

  [A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists.

  [B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability.

  [C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments.

  [D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing.

  25. What is the subject of the text?

  [A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle.

  [B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth.

  [C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry.

  [D] Exposure of a mass-market secret.

  Text 2

  An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted—the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced. By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to buy.

  In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?

  In December 2010 America’s Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a “do not track” (DNT) option to internet browsers, so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed. Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Apple’s Safari both offer DNT; Google’s Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and the Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests.

  On May 31st Microsoft set off the row. It said that Internet Explorer 10, the version due to appear with windows 8, would have DNT as a default.

  Advertisers are horrified. Human nature being what it is, most people stick with default settings. Few switch DNT on now, but if tracking is off it will stay off. Bob Liodice, the chief executive of the Association of National Advertisers, says consumers will be worse off if the industry cannot collect information about their preferences. People will not get fewer ads, he says. “They’ll get less meaningful, less targeted ads.”

  It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway.

  Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on advertising, it has chosen an indirect method: There is no guarantee that DNT by default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8—though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google’s on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft’s chief privacy officer, blogged: “We believe consumers should have more control.” Could it really be that simple?

  26. It is suggested in Paragraph 1 that “behavioural” ads help advertisers to

  [A] ease competition among themselves.

  [B] lower their operational costs.

  [C] avoid complaints from consumers.

  [D] provide better online services.

  27. “The industry” (Line 6, Para.3) refers to

  [A] online advertisers.

  [B] e-commerce conductors.

  [C] digital information analysis.

  [D] internet browser developers.

  28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default.

  [A] may cut the number of junk ads.

  [B] fails to affect the ad industry.

  [C] will not benefit consumers.

  [D] goes against human nature.

  29. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 6?

  [A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose.

  [B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT.

  [C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers.

  [D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads.

  30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of

  [A] indulgence.

  [B] understanding.

  [C] appreciation.

  [D] skepticism.

  Text 3

  Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely — though by no means uniformly — glowingly positive. Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all.

  Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu to climate change. You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to.

  But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years — so why shouldn’t we? Take a broader look at our species’ place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years. Look up Homo sapiens in the “Red List” of threatened species of the International for the Conversation of Nature (IUCN), and you will read: “Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline.”

  So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organisations are now thinking seriously about that question. For example, the Long Now Foundation has as its flagship project a mechanical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence.

  Perhaps willfully, it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today’s technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it’s perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That’s one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future.

  But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves.

  This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy. But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come.

  31. Our vision of the future used to be inspired by

  [A] our desire for lives of fulfillment.

  [B] our faith in science and technology.

  [C] our awareness of potential risks.

  [D] our belief in equal opportunity.

  32. The IUCN’s “Red List” suggests that human beings are

  [A] a sustained species.

  [B] a threat to the environment.

  [C] the world’s dominant power.

  [D] a misplaced race.

  33. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5?

  [A] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies.

  [B] Technology offers solutions to social problem.

  [C] The interest in science fiction is on the rise.

  [D] Our immediate future is hard to conceive.

  34. To ensure the future of mankind, it is crucial to

  [A] explore our planet’s abundant resources.

  [B] adopt an optimistic view of the world.

  [C] draw on our experience from the past.

  [D] curb our ambition to reshape history.

  35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  [A] Uncertainty about Our Future

  [B] Evolution of the Human Species

  [C] The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind

  [D] Science, Technology and Humanity

  Text 4

  On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona’s immigration law Monday—a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Constitution, the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the Administration’s effort to upset the balance of power between the federal government and the states.

  In Arizona v. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona’s controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law. The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to “establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization” and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial. Arizona had attempted to fashion state policies that ran parallel to the existing federal ones.

  Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court’s liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun. On the overturned provisions the majority held that Congress had deliberately “occupied the field,” and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal’s privileged powers.

  However, the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement. That’s because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.

  Two of the three objecting Justice—Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas—agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute. The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia, who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the Alien and Sedition Acts.

  The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as “a shocking assertion of federal executive power”. The White House argued that Arizona’s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities, even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter. In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with.

  Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status, it could. It never did so. The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn’t want to carry out Congress’s immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim.

  36. Three provisions of Arizona’s plan were overturned because they

  [A] deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers.

  [B] disturbed the power balance between different states.

  [C] overstepped the authority of federal immigration law.

  [D] contradicted both the federal and state policies.

  37. On which of the following did the Justices agree, according to Paragraph 4?

  [A] Federal officers’ duty to withhold immigrants’information.

  [B] States’ independence from federal immigration law.

  [C] States’ legitimate role in immigration enforcement.

  [D] Congress’s intervention in immigration enforcement.

  38.  It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that the Alien and Sedition Acts

  [A] violated the Constitution.

  [B] undermined the states’ interests.

  [C] supported the federal statute.

  [D] stood in favor of the states.

  39. The White House claims that its power of enforcement

  [A] outweighs that held by the states.

  [B] is dependent on the states’ support.

  [C] is established by federal statutes.

  [D] rarely goes against state laws.

  40.  What can be learned from the last paragraph?

  [A] Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress.

  [B] Justices intended to check the power of the Administration.

  [C] Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress.

  [D] The Administration is dominant over immigration issues.

  Part B

  Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  The social sciences are flourishing. As of 2005, there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010, the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000.

  Yet this enormous resource is not contributing enough to today’s global challenges including climate change, security, sustainable development and health.(41)        . Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger, from genetically engineered crops to artificial fertilizers. Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity.

  (42)        . This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no radical innovation without creative destruction.

  Today, the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates, rather than on topics with external impact. Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental change” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004. (43)       .

  When social scientists do tackle practical issues, their scope is often local: Belgium is interested mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium, for example. And whether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful.

  The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding. (44)          . This is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today’s economic climate.

  The trick is to direct these funds better. The European Framework funding programs have long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists. This year, it was proposed that system be changed: Horizon 2020, a new program to be enacted in 2014, would not have such a category. This has resulted in protests from social scientists. But the intention is not to neglect social science; rather, the complete opposite. (45)          . That should create more collaborative endeavors and help to develop projects aimed directly at solving global problems.

  [A] It could be that we are evolving two communities of social scientists: one that is discipline-oriented and publishing in highly specialized journals, and one that is problem-oriented and publishing elsewhere, such as policy briefs.

  [B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010, about 1,600 of the 100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of these keywords.

  [C] The idea is to force social scientists to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change; food security; marine research and the bio-economy; clean, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies.

  [D] The solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones.

  [E] These issues all have root causes in human behaviour: all require behavioural change and social innovations, as well as technological development. Stemming climate change, for example, is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy.

  [F] Despite these factors, many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems. And in Europe, some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development.

  [G] During the late 1990s, national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds — including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate — varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations, it is about 15%.

  Part C

  Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; 46) yet when one looks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes one that, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression.

  One of these urges has to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a “still point of the turning world,” to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. 47) A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the former becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one’s relation to one’s environment. 48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce form an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand.

  Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from, is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, 49) most of us give in to a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the oppression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call forth the spirit of plant and animal lift, if only symbolically, through a clumplike arrangement of materials, an introduction of colors, small pools of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. 50) It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see biophilia—a yearning for contact with nonhuman life—assuming uncanny representational forms.

  Section III   Writing

  P art A

  Directions:

  Write an e-mail of about 100 words to a foreign teacher in your college, inviting him/her to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest.

  You should include the details you think necessary.

  You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the e-mail. Use “Li Ming” instead.

  Do not write the address. (10 points)

  Part B

  Directions:

  Write an essay of 160~200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) interpret its intended meaning, and

  3) give your comments.

  You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

  2013年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试

  英语一试题答案详解

  Section Use of English

  1. [标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和固定搭配题。

  [选项分析]选项为四个动词。grant意为“授予,给予,允许”等,常用结构为grant sth. (to sb.) 或者grant sb. sth;submit含有 “提交”之意,常用结构为submit sth. to sb./sth.,用于下级对上级;transmit 意为“传输,发射”;deliver意为 “传递”。空格位于首段第二句,是that引导的定语从句的谓语动词。根据句意,该句顺承首句“总体而言,人们自己做决定时,并不擅长考虑背景信息”而指出“乍一看,这是一种优势,它……做判断的能力”。很显然,此处只有grant合适,既符合题意,也吻合结构,意为“它(这种优势)赋予做判断的一种能力”。其余各词均不能与ability搭配,所以[A]是答案。

  2.[标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义题。

  [选项分析] 四个选项意义截然不同。minor 意为“未成年的;次要的;较小的”等;objective意为“客观的;目标的”等;crucial意为“重要的,决定性的”;external意为“外部的,外表的”。该空位于which 引导的定语从句中,修饰factors,定语从句的意思是“不受……因素而做的判决”。其中的unbiased意为“fair and not influenced by”。第一句话说“人们不擅长利用背景信息作决定”,第二句话代词“this”指代第一句话,表述这种不善利用背景信息也可以是一种优势(strength),所以可以推出:免遭背景信息的影响,从而作出公正的(unbiased)判决。根据上下文意思,此处的_2__factors显然是background information的同义词,所以只能选external。尽管其它词语均可与factors搭配,但均与句意不符。所以[D]为答案。

  3.[标准答案] [C]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和固定搭配题。

  [选项分析]根据句意“不考虑大的……会使决策者因其所处的日常背景环境而形成偏见”可知,inability to consider the big __3__与poor at considering background information意思相同,所以the big _3__为background information 的同义替换,只有picture的范围和意义与此吻合。big picture 是一个固定搭配,表示“大局,事件的全貌”,“事件的全貌”也往往用whole picture,这里的big picture改写了前面的background information和external factors。其它词语与big 搭配,均没有这层意思。[A]issue“问题”,[B]vision“想象”,[D] moment“时刻”。

  4.[标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 逻辑衔接题。

  [选项分析] 根据上下文的逻辑关系判断,在提出一个观点之后,接下来就是进行例证。选项中只有[A] 表示“例如”,符合这一逻辑关系,故选[A]。此外,2010年完型也考查了for example, 2009年完型考查了for instance,例证关系是历年考研完型的重要考点。[B]表示“平均”;[C]为“大体上,原则上”;[D] 为“首先”,均不符合。

  5.[标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析题。

  [选项分析] 四个选项均可与介词 of 搭配。fond of表示“喜欢”,fearful of 表示“害怕,恐怕”,capable of 表示“能够,具有……能力”,thoughtless of表示“考虑不周”。分析句子结构可知,_5__of appearing too soft 为judge 的定语。整句话的意思是“……显得对犯罪太过心慈手软的法官可能更倾向于判人入狱”,[A]和[D]显然不对。而“显得对犯罪太过心慈手软”也不是某种能力,所以可排除[C] 。根据上下文意思,法官做出入狱判决,是因为“害怕”自己表现得对犯罪过于软弱(too soft)。故选[B]。

  6.[标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 固定搭配题。

  [选项分析] soft on sb./sth.是固定搭配,表示“对某人/某事态度偏软,不够严厉”的意,故选[B]。 此外,根据介词的本义和其后所接的crime(犯罪,犯罪行为),也可以判断只能选on,其它均与句意不吻合。

  7.[标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 逻辑衔接题。

  [选项分析]if表示假设,“如果”;until 表示时间,“直到……”;though表示转折,“然而”;unless表示让步,“除非”。前半句意为“担心对犯罪行为表现过分软弱的法官可能更会判人入狱”,后半句意为“当天他已经判五到六人缓刑”。两句话之间是明显的假设关系,所以只有if符合题意,[A]为答案。本句的a judge对应前一句的decision-makers,缓刑判决案例对应前一句的the daily samples of information they were working with,本句论证前一句所提出的“biased”,表明法官没关注案件本身,而依据先前的缓刑判决,从而不公正地做出入狱判决。

  8.[标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析题。

  [选项分析] promote意为“促进”;emphasize 意为“强调”,常与介词on搭配;share 意为“分享”,常用于share sth. with sb.; test 意为“测试,验证”。所选动词的宾语为idea。根据上文中的speculated可知,该idea只是一种猜测,所以只能选test“验证”。整句话的意思是,“他求助于大学招生程序来验证这种观点”。所以,[D]是答案。关于test用法,在2010年第三篇阅读也出现过:“untested theory未经证实的观点”。

  9.[标准答案] [D]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析题。

  [选项分析] 本句提到的例子和第一段的例子如出一辙。根据第一段,法官若要判决某具体案件,为保持公正,就不应该考虑当天已经判决的案例。同理可得,本句表明的意思是,在权衡入学申请人的时候,也不应该受到同一天其他申请人的干扰。[A]“决定,抉择”;[B] “质量”;[C ]status “身份”;[D] success “成功”。只有[D]带入文中“申请人的……不应该取决于同一天随机面试的其他几名申请人”语义通顺,所以答案是[D]。

  10.[标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义题。

  [选项分析]结合本题选项和句子结构可知,空格处为过去分词作others的后置定语,且被randomly修饰,randomly“随意地,随机地”暗示the few others是随意“挑选的”,所以答案选[A]。[B]studied“被研究的”,[C]found“(努力寻找)而发现”和[D]identified“被鉴别出”都表示“刻意、努力为之”而得出结果的含义,randomly相矛盾,故均可排除。

  11.[标准答案] [D ]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义题。

  [选项分析]选项为四个形容词。exceptional意为“例外的”;defensible意为“可防御的,可辩护的”;replaceable意为“可替换的”;otherwise意为“相反的”。根据but可知前后句间为转折关系,即theory和the truth之间是不符的。四个词中只有otherwise表示“相反的”,与句意吻合;其余的均不能表达but的强烈转折意味。所以答案是D。

  12.[标准答案] [C ]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析题。

  [选项分析]选项是四个动词的过去分词。inspired 意为“鼓舞的;授意的”;expressed意为 “表达的”; conducted 意为“引导的,指挥的,管理的”;secured 意为“保护的,担保的”。根据句子结构,此处是动词的过去分词作后置定语,修饰interviews,且该工作的执行者是by后的31 admissions officers。由此可知,只能是“入学考试的官员们指导的面试”,所以选conducted。conduct 多与考试、面试等搭配,表示“进行面试或考试”。inspire“授意”,多指由较高级别的组织部门或人允许或要求较低级别的组织部门或人去做某件事情,显然不符合此处语义;expressed和secured也与语义不符,故[C]为答案。

  13.[标准答案] [B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析题。

  [选项分析]选项是四个动词。 assign 表示“ 分配;指派”等;rate意为“ 认为;估价;划分等级”等;match 意为“使比赛;匹配”等;arrange意为“  安排,整理”等。根据原文的on a scale of one to five(1至5五个等级)即可确定只能选rate,其他均无划分级别的含义。整句话意为“面试官将申请者划分为1至5五个等级”。所以正确答案是[B]。

  14.[标准答案] [D ]

  [考点分析] 固定搭配题。

  [选项分析]根据句子后面的 consideration即可确定选take,take consideration是固定搭配,意为“把……考虑在内”。其他三个选项均不能与 consideration搭配。

  15. [标准答案] [B ]

  [考点分析] 逻辑关系题。

  [选项分析]选项是四个副词。instead表示“代替,反而”;then表示“然后”;ever表示“曾经,永远”;rather表示“宁可,宁愿;反而”。本题所在句句子主干为The scores were 15 used to make a decision on whether to accept him or her,所填副词表明本句与前文的逻辑关系。前面两句说到,面试官把申请者划分为5个等级,本句中The scores“分数”即指申请者获得的等级。本句说得到的分数将和GMAT分数一起被用来决定其是否被录取。从上下文的语义衔接看,本句与前文两句之间只存在时间上的先后顺序,而不存在转折等其他关系,故答案为[B]。

  16. [标准答案] [C]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义和动词辨析

  [选项分析] select表示“选择”;pass表示“通过”;mark表示“标志,打分数”;introduce表示“介绍,引入”。分析句子结构,which 引导的定语从句修饰 exam,而且后面跟着800 points,很显然与分数有关,可确定选[C]mark。该句的意思是,“GMAT是以800分计算的一种标准化测试”。pass之后一般接考试,而不是分数;其余两个选项也均不能与分数搭配,均排除。

  17. [标准答案] [A]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义题。

  [选项分析]根据句子结构,句中出现三个比较对象,the previous candidate,the one_17__that(此处的that指代the previous candidate)和the next applicant。很明显,the previous candidate是比较的基准,then后是其与the next applicant进行的比较,所以空格处只能是the previous candidate与其前的比较,答案选before。而且,根据句意,前一个申请者的得分只能是比他“之前”参加面试的人得分多,这样才能有他之后的人与他形成对比。after“之后”颠倒原文的时间顺序,应排除;above和below不表示时间顺序,可直接排除。正确答案是[A]。

  18. [标准答案] [ B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义

  [选项分析] 选项是四个动词。jump意为“上升,暴涨”;float意为“漂浮”;drop意为“下降”;fluctuate意为“浮动”,多指围绕某个标准而上下波动。该句话主要讲分数的高低变化,所以只能是上升或下降,可首先排除float和fluctuate。根据后句话的结构可知,This指代an average of 0.075 points,后面又有such a decrease与this相呼应,即an average of 0.075 points是decrease的,所以只能选drop。整句话的意思是,“Simonsohn博士发现,在每天的一连串面试者当中,如果前一个应试者的分数比此前的面试者高出0.75个点或高出更多的话,那么下一个面试者的分数平均会下降0.075个点”。所以[B]是答案。

  19. [标准答案] [ B]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义题。

  [选项分析] 选项是四个动词。achieve表示“达到,完成”;undo表示“取消,解开”;maintain表示“维持,继续,维修”;disregard表示“忽视,不尊重”。根据句意,“这一差距听起来很小,但要想……这很小的分差所带来的影响,应试者就需要在GMAT考试中比实际……多考取30分才行。”很显然,此处应该选填一个表示“消除”影响的动词,所以[B]undo是答案,其余三个均与原文不符。

  20. [标准答案] [ C]

  [考点分析] 上下文语义题。

  [选项分析] promising意为“有希望的,有前途的”;possible意为“可能的”;necessary意为“必需的”;helpful意为“有帮助的,有益的”。根据句子结构,than作关系代词引导定语从句,先行词为GMAT points,所选词修饰points。句子把两种分数进行比较。一种是面试分数不受影响时,考生成功入学,GMAT“必需的”分数。另一种是面试分数受到不公正影响时,考生要成功入学,GMAT 需要的分数。后者比前者高30分。所以答案是[C]necessary,而不能是promising,possible或helpful。实际上more than necessary是一个常用结构,意为“超过实际需要的”。

  参考译文

  总的来说,人们在做个人决定时,并不擅长考虑背景信息。乍一看,这似乎是一种优势,它赋予人们不受外界因素影响而做判断的能力。但是,Simonsohn博士推测,缺乏考虑大局的能力,会导致决策者受其日常所接触信息的影响而形成偏见。例如,他这样推理,如果一个法官害怕(别人说他)对犯罪太心慈手软,而且他在那天已经对五、六个被告做出缓刑判决,那么他更可能会判接下来的人入狱。

  为了验证这种想法,他开始关注大学招生程序。理论上讲,申请人的成功不应该依赖于同一天里随机抽取的其他面试者,但是Simonsohn博士怀疑事实并非如此。

  他研究了由31位招生人员主考的9323位MBA考生的面试结果。经过考虑众多因素,面试官将申请人划分成1至5五个等级。然后,(他们)将这些分数与申请人的经企管理研究生入学考试(或称GMAT)成绩综合起来,由此来决定他或她是否被录取。GMAT是一种满分为800分的标准化考试。

  Simonsohn博士发现,在每天的一连串面试者当中,如果前一个应试者的分数比其前的应试者的分数高出0.75个点或高出更多的话,那么下一个申请者的分数就会平均下降0.075个点。这一分差听起来很小,但是要想抵消掉它所带来的影响,应试者就要在GMAT考试中比实际所需要的分数再多出30分才行。

  Section Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21.【标准答案】[B]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对文中具体信息的理解能力和对因果细节信息的分析能力,解题的关键在于把握定位段落的核心信息。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息Priestly和criticize定位到首段首句,去掉状语和插入语,首句的主干信息为Priestly scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her. 意思为“Priestly责怪她那没有魅力的助手,因为她的助手认为顶级时尚并没有影响到她”。题干的criticizes对应文中的scolds,选项[B]insensitivity to fashion对应文中high fashion doesn’t affect her,是对原文首句的概括总结。所以[B]选项正确。[A]利用第二句中the bargain bin“廉价商品处理区”和the poor girl这些细节信息编造干扰。bargain 修饰的是bin,而不是skill。[C]正反混淆,“对顶级时尚痴迷”与原文含义相反。[D]曲解文意,原文首句中imagining是动词的现在分词形式,此处译为“认为”,而选项中imagination为名词“想象力”,变换了词性,改变了词义,与原文含义不符。所以[A][C][D]均可排除。

  22. 【标准答案】[D]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对文中人物观点的把握能力和对细节信息的分析能力。解题的关键在于定位题干信息,并结合选项内容,准确理解原文内容。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息Cline,labels和consumers定位到第二段第四句,去掉两个破折号之间的插入语,此句的主干信息为Those labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposal and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks,意思为“那些商标鼓励有时尚意识的消费者把衣服视为一次性用品,并且每隔几周更新衣橱”。[D]是对该句的同义替换,题干的urge对应文中的encourage,选项中的garments对应文中wardrobe,shop for…frequently对应文中renew… every few weeks。所以[D]选项正确。[A]是根据第二段第三句中的Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory设置的干扰项。该句是说更快的周转时间使得库存浪费减少了,这还是说明人们购物更频繁了,并不表明大众品牌商标鼓励人们“与不必要的浪费作斗争”。故[A]与文意相悖。[B]正反混淆,大众品牌商标会使得消费者身处于狂热的时尚界,而不是使消费者脱离狂热的时尚界。[C]曲解文意,利用第四句中although they don’t advertise that…设置无关干扰,文中并未提及“抵制广告的影响”。所以[A][B][C]均可排除。

  23.【标准答案】[A]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生根据上下文或构词知识推测生词词义的能力,解题的关键在于把握定位位置的上下文逻辑关系并关注文章的主线及感情色彩。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息定位到第二段首句。推测“indictment”的词义需结合上下文语境,首句中Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”,可见“indictment”是Cline对待快速时尚的态度。所以根据该段末句中Cline argues这一关键点,理解末句含义便可推测出“indictment”的词义。末句主要信息为“这些品牌扰乱了时尚周期,撼动了长期适应于季节性节奏的整个行业”。可见Cline所有的态度是反向的,批判的。[A]“指控,谴责”符合题意,所以选为答案。另外,根据构词知识可知,indictment= in+dict+ment,其中的dict是常见词根,意为“说”,ment为名词词尾,in-为表示否定或加强意义的前缀,所以可初步猜测为跟“说”有关的意思。选项中只有[A]有“说”的意思,而且accusation=ac+cus+ation意为“起诉,控告”。[B]正反混淆。[C]选项本身错误,议论文中的观点态度必须是明确的,不能是漠不关心的。[D]也不符合语境。所以[B][C][D]均可排除。

  24.【标准答案】[D]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对核心信息的推理引申能力,解题的关键在于准确把握段落的中心句 。

  【选项分析】[A]项中vanity是关键词,可定位在该段最后一句话。但是该选项中的比较内容在原文中未出现,所以明显不对。(特别提醒考生:对于含有比较意义的选项一定要特别关注;一般来说,这种选项都不是正确答案)[B]项与该段的首句话内容“一些快时尚公司已经努力控制其对劳动力和环境的影响”明显矛盾,所以不正确。[C]项又是一个比较句,要特别注意其比较的内容。尽管该段最后一句是个比较句,但其比较的对象是购物的可持续性,而不是选项中的“买不起的衣物”,所以该选项也不正确。很明显,选项[D]是对该段最后一句话的正确理解。“人们只有买不起衣服时才会开始可持续性购物”,这充分说明价格对于可持续性购物的重要性,故正确选项为[D]。

  25.【标准答案】[C]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对文章总体结构的分析能力和对主旨要义的理解能力,解题的关键在于把握文章的行文思路和整体框架,通过筛选题目中的中心词来确定文章主旨。

  【选项分析】由文章结构可知:首段举例引入时尚主题。第二段引出文章主旨fast fashion并且指出了它对于时尚产业的破坏作用。第三四段通过数据和举例进一步例证fast fashion的弊端。第五六段指出可以采取的解决办法:人们往往只有在无法支付的情况下才会进行可持续性购买。可见fast-fashion为文章的中心词,且作者的态度是批判性的。所以[C]选项正确。[A]无中生有,文中从未提及。[B]曲解文意,high-fashion是文章首段引入时尚主题的局部信息,不是全文论述的主旨。尽管mass-market出现过,但文章并未论述其秘密,所以[D]也不正确。故[A][B][D]均可排除。

  参考译文

  在2006年上映的电影《穿Prada的女魔头》中,由梅丽尔·斯特里普扮演的米兰达·普利斯特里责备了她那没有魅力的助手,是因为她的助手认为顶级时尚对她没有影响。普利斯特里数落说,助手的深蓝色毛衣经历岁月的变迁从时尚秀场退化到百货商店,进而沦落到廉价商品处理区。而在这里,可怜的女孩毫不犹豫地挑选了这件衣服。

  时尚行业这种自上而下的理念都非常过时,也与伊丽莎白·席琳历时三年完成的《盛装》一书中指责的“快速时尚”所描述的狂热的世界不相符。在过去十年左右的时间里,技术进步已使Zara, H&M, 和Uniqlo这样的大众市场品牌能够更迅速地应对潮流,更精准地预测需求。更快速的周转意味着更少的库存浪费,更频繁的新品发布以及更多的利润回收。那些商标促使对时尚敏感的消费者将服装看作一次性用品—— 只洗一两次就扔掉,虽然他们并没有做这样的广告宣传 ——并且每隔几周更新衣橱。席琳认为,通过以极低的价格提供时尚产品,这些品牌劫持了时尚圈,动摇了长期以来适应于季节周期的整个产业。

  当然,这场变革的受害者并不仅限于设计师。H&M品牌要想向世界各地2300多家分店供应价格为5.95美元的针织迷你裙,它必须依赖廉价的海外劳动力和大额订单,这些订单使得(服装企业)过度消耗自然资源并且使用大量的有害化学制品。

  席琳认为:“《盛装》是时尚界对于像Michael Pollan所著的《杂食者的困境》这样的消费者维权畅销书的一种回应。大批量生产的衣服像快餐一样,满足了饥饿和需求,却是非耐用品,而且是种浪费。”她发现,美国人一年购买大约200亿件衣服,平均每人64件,而且无论其花费多少,这样的过量置衣会造成浪费。

  在《盛装》的结尾,席琳介绍了她心目中的典范,一个名叫Sarah Kate Beaumont的布鲁克林女人,她从2008年开始所有的衣服都自己制作,而且很漂亮。但是正如席琳首次提到的那样,Beaumont花费了几十年来完善她制作衣服的手艺,她的成功不是一蹴而就的。

  尽管一些快速时尚公司(包括H&M 和它的绿色Conscious Collection 系列)已经努力遏制它们对劳动力和环境造成的影响,但是席琳认为持续的变化只能通过消费者达成。她对无论是在食品行业还是能源领域支持可持续性的人士,提出了他们共同的理念。每个人都有虚荣心;人们往往只有在无法支付的情况下才会进行可持续性的购买。

  Text 2

  26.【标准答案】[B]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对细节信息的分析和理解能力。解题的关键在于定位题干信息,并结合选项内容,准确理解原文内容。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息“behavioural” ads可将答案定位在首段的第二、三句话。这两句话指出,互联网时代的行为广告能瞄准目标顾客,减少被浪费掉的部分广告经费,由此可知,选项[B]“降低广告商的运营成本”是正确答案。[B]是对第二句话的同义替换,其中的lower对应文中be reduced,operational costs对应文中this fraction(half of all advertising budgets),选项用主动语态形式表达了原文的被动语态形式的句子。所以[B]项正确。[A][C][D]在原文中未提及,均可排除。

  27.【标准答案】[D]

  【考点分析】本题考查考生对文章中关键指代词所指代信息的分析能力。解题的关键在于结合上下文来确定词义。

  【选项分析】“The industry”所在句指出,the FTC和the DAA达成了共识:the industry要对DNT做出迅速回应,结合上下文语境可知,the industry指代前文出现的内容:Microsofts Internet Explorer and Apples Safari“微软的IE浏览器和苹果的游猎浏览器”以及Googles Chrome“谷歌的铬黄浏览器”,也就是[D]表述的“网络浏览器开发商”,所以[D]选项正确。[A]不是本段谈论的核心内容;[B]和[C]在文中未提及,此三项均可排除。

  28.【标准答案】[C]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对文章细节信息和文中人物观点的把握能力。解题的关键在于定位题干信息,并结合选项内容,准确理解原文内容。

  【选项分析】根据题干中的关键词Bob Liodice,DNT和default可将答案定位在第五段的最后几句话。Bob Liodice说,如果广告商收集不到有关消费者偏好的信息(即题干所提的“将DNT设为默认”带来的后果),那么这对于消费者来说将更为不利。[C]是对原文中的consumers will be worse off的同义互换,所以[C]是正确答案。[A]正反混淆,与第五段最后两句所说的垃圾广告不是减少而是增加相反。[B]与原文主题相矛盾,全文主要论述的就是DNT对于广告业的可能影响。[D]曲解文意,第五段第二句说“出于人类本能,很多用户都坚持使用默认选项”,这不能说“将DNT设为默认违背人性”。所以[A][B][D]均可排除。

  29.【标准答案】[A]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对文章细节信息的分析能力。解题的关键在于与原文信息一一核查,找出符合段落具体信息的正确选项。

  【选项分析】定位到第六段。本段末句提到some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway“有些广告商会忽略"禁止跟踪"信号,不管不顾地继续追踪用户在线行为”,而设置“禁止追踪”的初衷是为了保证人们的在线行为不被追踪。由此可推知,"禁止跟踪"可能不会达到预期的目的。所以[A]项正确。[B]正反混淆,第六段第一句提到“广告商们会对此作何反应仍不清楚”,而不是广告商愿意实施"禁止跟踪"。[C]正反混淆,第六段末句提到“无法辨别消费者是否保留着微软的默认设置”,而不是消费者不欢迎“禁止跟踪”。[D]偷换概念,第二句Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking,即DNT不会迫使广告商停止跟踪,选项将文中stop tracking偷换为offer behavioural ads,并将原文的否定表达换成了肯定表达。所以[B][C][D]均可排除。

  30.【标准答案】[D]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对作者观点态度的把握。态度题有两种解法:整体分析法和具体定位法。前者是根据作者对文章主要内容的倾向性来做出综合推断,后者是根据某一段落或句子中的具体信息来确定。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息Brendon Lynch定位到文章末段最后两句。Brendon Lynch在博客中写道:“我们认为用户应该有更大的话语权。”最后一句Could it really be that simple? “真的是这么简单吗?”体现了作者的态度,很显然,作者对于微软采取这一措施的动机表示质疑。所以[D]项正确。[A] [B][C]都不符合题意,均可排除。

  参考译文

  老话说得好,所有的广告预算有一半都打了水漂——问题是,没有人知道到底是哪一半。在网络时代,至少在理论上,这一部分可大幅度减少。通过观察人们的在线搜索、点击和评论,公司能够向那些最有可能购买的顾客身上投放“行为”广告。

  在过去的几周内,一席争吵已经体现出这样精准的信息对于广告商(和他们的软件供应商)的价值。广告商们应该试想人们愿意被追踪并且被发送行为广告吗?或广告商们是不是应该获得明确的许可?

  2010年12月份,美国的联邦贸易委员会提议将“禁止跟踪”选项添加到网络浏览器中,以便用户能够告诉广告商们他们不想被追踪。微软的IE浏览器以及苹果的游猎浏览器都有“禁止跟踪”选项;今年,谷歌的铬黄浏览器也将提供这一功能。2月份,联邦贸易委员会与数字广告联盟达成共识:该行业应对“禁止跟踪”的要求进行回应。

  5月31日,微软引发了这场争论。它声称将在随公司Windows 8一起面市的IE10浏览器中,设置DNT为默认选项。

  广告商们一阵恐慌。人性使然,大部分人坚持使用默认设置。现在很少有人会开启DNT选项,但如果“追踪”选项是关着的,它就会保持关闭状态。数字广告联盟下的一个组织全美广告商协会主席Bob Liodice说:“如果广告行业不能收集消费者的偏好信息,那么这对于消费者来说将更为不利。”他还说:“人们收到的广告不会减少,他们收到的是更没有意义,更缺少针对性的广告。”

  目前仍然不清楚广告商会作何回应。尽管一些公司已经承诺会在收到DNT信号后停止追踪,但是收到DNT信号的公司并没有义务停止跟踪。因为无法判断用户是真正反对“行为”广告,还是没有更改微软提供的默认选项,所以有些广告商会忽视DNT信号,继续追踪信息。

  同样不清楚的是,为何微软孤军奋战。毕竟微软公司也有广告业务,尽管该公司仍在研究如何对DNT请求做出回应,但却声称会遵守DNT请求。如果微软公司想要去激怒几乎全靠广告业务运营的谷歌的话,那么它选择了一条间接的途径:没人保证默认的DNT将会成为行业规范。DNT似乎不会成为Windows 8的巨大卖点——尽管微软之前以此为标准将旗下的其他产品与谷歌的相媲美。微软的首席隐私官Brendon Lynch在博客中曾经这样写道:“我们相信消费者们应该有更多的控制权”。事情真能这么简单吗?

  Text 3

  31.【标准答案】[B]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对细节信息的分析能力,解题的关键在于挖掘出隐藏在定位段落中的因果逻辑关系。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息Our vision of the future和过去时的标志性短语used to 定位到第一段。第一句指出过去人们对未来的想象是积极的,第二句解释其原因:科学和技术能治愈人类的一切疾病,给人们带来圆满的生活和无限的机遇。可见人们过去之所以对未来很乐观是因为对科技是充满信心的。[B]是该句的同义替换,所以[B]项正确。[A][D] 因果倒置,lives of fulfillment和opportunity实则是科技进步所产生的结果,并非造成我们对未来憧憬的原因。且[D]中的equal opportunity曲解了原文opportunity for all的意思,所以[A]和[D]均不正确。[C]不在定位的段落,是第二段的内容,对应的时间词是Now,与题干中的used to矛盾,所以[C]可排除。

  32.【标准答案】[A]

  【考点分析】此题考查对细节信息的推理引申能力和区分论点论据的能力,解题的关键在于准确区分论点论据。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息The IUCN’s “Red List”定位到第三段第四句。该句中出现了专有名词"Red List"和引用的"Red List"一书中的内容,可知第四句为论据,该论据是用以论证前面的论点的,即第三句:we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years “就算不能存续数十万年,我们也有绝佳的机会能够存续数万年”。由此可知,人类是持续性物种。[A]是对第三句这一论点的概括总结,并且由论据本身“人类分布广泛,适应能力强,数量正在增加,并且目前人类尚未遇到致整体数量减少的大威胁”也可推出[A]正确。[B] 是对threatened species的误解,不是对环境的威胁,而是其本身是一种受威胁的物种。[C]过度夸大,与原文含义不符。[D]偷换概念,原文中misplaced修饰的是gloominess,而不是race。所以[B][C][D]均可排除。

  33.【标准答案】[D]

  【考点分析】 此题考查考生对段落主旨的把握和细节信息的分析能力,解题的关键在于将选项与原文信息进行一一比对,找出符合段落主旨的正确选项。

  【选项分析】定位到第五段,[A]曲解文意,该段最后一句中Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future“Arc是专门研究不远的将来的一种新刊物”,而不是“Arc有助于限定未来学的研究范围”。根据[B]项中的technology可将其定位在第二句,该句明确指出科技的演化及其带来的社会后果是复杂的,所以最好把探索我们所能设想的众多可能性的任务留给科幻作家和未来学家,整句话未提及solutions,也没有提到social problem,所以[B]错误。[C]项中的science fiction虽在该段第二句有所提及,但并未提及人们对其的兴趣,所以[C]不正确。根据[D]项中的immediate future可将其定位于该段首句,该句明确指出想象lengthy timescales要比想象immediate future容易,换言之,想象我们不远的将来比较难。所以[D]项正确。

  34.【标准答案】[C]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对段落主旨的把握和细节信息的分析能力,解题的关键在于把握定位段落的核心信息。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息future of the mankind以及出题顺序与段落顺序基本保持一致的原则定位到最后两段。第六段第一句转折指出,从更远的视角来看,竟然有相当多的事情是我们可以非常确定的。第二句阐明原因:过去是通向未来的关键(key,对应题干的crucial),我们现已识别出足够多的形成地球和人类历史的长期模式,以便有根据地预测我们的后代将来所处的环境。换言之,为了确保人类的将来,关键要吸取过去经验。[C]是对第六段第二句的同义替换,所以[C]正确。[A]利用文中出现的explore,planet以及常识干扰,但文中从未提及勘探地球上丰富的资源。[B]将原文的adopt an optimistic view of our future偷换成adopt an optimistic view of the world,而且对确保未来不是crucial,排除该项。[D]曲解文意,第六段第二句shaping the history修饰long-term patterns,指的是形成地球和人类历史的长期模式,而不是要抑制重塑历史的雄心。所以[A][B][D]均可排除。

  35.【标准答案】[C]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对文章主旨的把握。解题的关键在于把握文章的结构和行文思路。

  【选项分析】文章主要围绕对人类未来的预测而展开,在文末指出尽管人类的未来不完全美好,但我们有足够的知识,能够减少曾经威胁早期人类的诸多风险,改善我们后代的处境。可见作者对人类的未来的态度是积极的,所以[C]是答案。[A]与第六段首句话矛盾,该句指出把眼光放远一点,有很多事情是我们能够确定的,所以[A]不正确。[B][D]中都缺少文中重复出现的主题词future,仅是文章中的局部信息,无法涵盖全文主旨,所以均可排除。

  参考译文

  直到几十年前,我们对于未来的想象尽管不一致,但在很大程度上却都是非常积极的。科学和技术能够治愈人类所有疾病,给人们带来圆满的生活和无限的机遇。

  如今乌托邦一样的理想社会已经过时了,因为我们更加深刻地认识到了所面临的威胁,从行星相撞到流行性感冒,再到气候变化。你甚至可能会倾向于认为人类的未来会变得渺茫。

  但是,这种悲观情绪是不该有的。化石的记录表明许多物种已经持续数百万年---所以为什么我们不能呢?放眼人类在宇宙中的地位,很明显,我们有绝佳的机会能够存续数万年,即使不是数十万年。不妨看看国际自然保护联盟IUCN 列出的受威胁物种的“红色名单”中对于现代人的描述:现代人被列为最不受关注的物种,他们分布及其广泛,适应能力强,目前数量正在增加,而且不存在造成其整体数量减少的重大威胁。

  所以我们遥远的未来会怎样呢?现在,越来越多的研究人员和组织正在认真思考这个问题。比如,恒今基金会就设计了一个几千年以后仍然在计时的机械表作为它的旗舰项目。

  或许我们故意去设想时间跨度这么长的未来,而不去想像最近的将来,因为前者更容易。如今的技术变革和它对社会的影响非常复杂,或许最好把我们能够想象的多种可能性留给科幻小说作家和未来学家去探索。这就是我们发起Arc的一个原因,它是一本专门研究不远未来的全新刊物。

  但是从更远的视角来看,竟然有相当多的事情是我们可以非常确定的。因为通常,过去是通向未来的关键,我们现已识别出足够多的形成地球和人类历史的长期模式,以便有根据地预测我们的后代将来所处的环境。

  这种对未来的长远观点使得我们对未来悲观的看法更有可能转瞬即逝。诚然,未来并不完全是美好的。但是,现在我们有足够的知识,能够减少威胁前人生存的危险因素并改善后人的命运。

  

  Text 4

  36.【标准答案】[C]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对文中因果细节信息的把握能力,解题的关键在于理解段落中的具体信息。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息Three provisions of Arizona’ plan及overturned定位到第二段第一句。该句指出了“州计划的三项条款被推翻”这一结果。第二句和第三句论述了产生这一结果的原因:宪法规定仅华盛顿有权“建立统一的归化条例”,而且联邦法律高于各州法律,而亚利桑那州却试图制定与现存联邦政策并行的州政策。由此可知,州计划的三项条款被推翻就是因为它谮越了联邦移民法的权威,[C]是答案。另外,根据第三段的最后一句话也可知,条款之所以被推翻是因为Arizona侵犯了联邦的特权,再次验证了[C]的正确性。[A]是原文单词的零乱拼凑,原文从未提及联邦警察。[B]偷换概念,扰乱的是联邦政府和州之间的权利平衡,而不是各州之间的权利平衡。[D]扩大范围,充其量也只与联邦政策相冲突,原文并未提及是否与其他州政策相冲突。所以[A][B][D]均可排除。

  37.【标准答案】[C]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对段落人物观点的把握能力,解题的关键在于区分文章作者观点和段落人物观点。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息 Justices定位到第四段首句:法官们说允许亚利桑那州警方核实移民的合法身份,换言之,法官们赞同各州在移民执法中的合法权力,所以[C]选项正确。第四段第二句提到“国会明确鼓励各州工作人员与联邦政府的同事们分享信息、通力合作”,但没说最高法院的法官们对此的态度,[A]无从得知,排除。[B]答非所问,“各州独立于联邦移民法律”不是法官们同意的观点。[D]曲解文意,第二句提及国会通常“设想”联邦和州联合执法,而不是国会“介入”移民执法。所以[A][B][D]均可排除。

  38.【标准答案】[D]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对段落细节信息的推理引申能力,解题的关键在于把握定位段落的具体信息。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息the Alien and Sedition Acts定位到第五段末句。state privileges going back to the Alien and Sedition Acts意思为“州特权可追溯到the Alien and Sedition Acts法案”,可见the Alien and Sedition Acts支持的是州的权利。[D] 是defense of state privileges的同义表达,所以[D]正确。[A]曲解文意,the Alien and Sedition Acts支持的是州的权利,不代表其违反宪法。[B]正反混淆,与文意相反。[C]中的supported一词从无得知。所以[A][B][C]均可排除。

  39.【标准答案】[A]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对段落主旨要义的理解能力,解题的关键在于把握定位段落的主旨。

  【选项分析】根据题干已知信息the White House定位到第六段最后两句:白宫声称亚利桑那州的法律条文严格遵守了联邦法律法规,但是它制订的这些法律与联邦政府的执法优先权相冲突,实际上它能够使任何它不同意的州法律不合法,也就是说,在执法权力上,应是联邦政府优先。由此可见“白宫的执行力大于州执行力”,[A]是对第六段主旨的高度概括,所以[A]正确。[B]无中生有,原文并未提及白宫的执行力要依赖于各州的支持。[C]错误,因为第二段中明确指出,宪法规定,唯独华盛顿(即联邦政府或白宫)有权“建立统一的归化条例”,所以白宫的权力是宪法赋予的,而并不是由联邦法律所赋予的。文中并未提及白宫的执法权力很少与各州法律相冲突,选项[D] 属于无中生有。所以[B][C][D]均可排除。

  40.【标准答案】[B]

  【考点分析】此题考查考生对文章主旨的把握和段落信息的推理引申能力,解题的关键在于把握文章的行文思路和文章的框架结构。

  【选项分析】选项一一甄别。 [A]过度推理,末段第二、三句:如果国会想阻止州政府使用自己的资源来核查移民身份的话,它是有权力的,但它并未这样做。由此并不能推断“移民问题通常由国会来裁定”。第四句指出,联邦政府自恃拥有特权,在它与国会意见相左、不想执行国会希望在移民问题上实现联邦政府与州政府合作的这个愿景时,它也不允许各州与联邦政府一起移民执法。联邦政府的做法显然过于独断专行。第五句随即指出,最高法院全票否决了联邦政府的这种做法。由此可见,最高法院的大法官们是为了抑制联邦政府的权力。选项[B] 是对原文的正确理解,其中check意为“抑制,遏制”,故答案为[B] 。[C]曲解文意,末句:每一个法官都反对政府的主张,并未提及“法官想要加强与国会间的相互协作”,所以 [C]可排除。末段首句:联邦政府确实拥有某些特权,比如,对公民身份以及边界的控制权。[D]选项是对该句的改写,其中的The Administration同义替换the federal government, dominant同义替换exclusively。但是第二句But转折指出国会对移民问题也有否决权,它也可以制约各州在移民问题上的行为,因此第二句对第一句联邦政府的权力进行了否定,故[D]“政府在移民问题上具有支配权”错误。

  参考译文

  周一,美最高法院以5票赞成3票反对的投票结果否决了亚利桑那州移民法的绝大部分条款,这是奥巴马政府政策上的一次微弱胜利。然而,在更重要的宪法问题上,最高法院以全部8票否定了奥巴马政府在打破联邦权力与各州权力的平衡问题上所做的努力。

  在亚利桑那州与联邦政府的这场较量中,最高法院的多数法官推翻了亚利桑州计划中备受争议的四项条款中的三条。它计划让州和地方警察来实施联邦移民法。宪法规定,只有华盛顿才有权“建立统一的归化条例”,而且联邦法律高于各州法律。这些规定是无可争议的。亚利桑那州却试图制定与现存联邦政策并行的州政策。

  大法官安东尼·肯尼迪,连同首席法官约翰·罗伯特和法院的自由党派人士认定州法律太过接近联邦权威。在被推翻的条款中,美国国会故意“把持了(移民法案)这一领域的立法权(而又不作为)”,亚利桑那州据此才冒犯联邦的特权。

  然而,法官们说亚利桑那的警察可以核查疑似非法移民者的身份。那是因为国会总是构想联邦和州联合执法,并且明确鼓励州官员与联邦同事互通信息并相互合作。

  三个持反对意见的法官中,法官塞缪尔·艾力图和克莱伦斯·托马斯一致认同宪法逻辑,但是对于究竟亚利桑那的哪一条法律与联邦法律相冲突却有不同的意见。唯一主要的反对者是法官安通尼·斯卡利亚,他提出对州特权给予更加强大的保障,这可追溯到《关于制止外国人反美及制止煽动言论的法律》。

  最高法院这项针对奥巴马总统的8:0的反对裁决使得大法官塞缪尔·艾力图在他的反对表决中将此描述为“令人震惊的对联邦政府执政权力的维护”。白宫声称尽管州法律在条文上遵循了联邦法律,但是亚利桑那州的法律却与其执法优先权相冲突。事实上,白宫声称它能废除任何不被其认可的、合法的州法律。

  一些权力的的确确只归联邦所有,比如国籍和边界的控制权。但是如果国会想要阻止州政府使用自己的资源去核查移民者身份的话,它是可以做到的。但它从未这么做。实际上,政府在声称,因为它不想执行国会的移民愿景,所以各州也都不允许那样做。最高法院的每位法官都义正言辞地否决了这一主张。

  Part B

  41.[标准答案][E]

  [考点分析] 复现结构+代词指代关系定位

  [选项分析] 所填空位于段中,需根据前后句内容或上下文来确定。前句紧接首段社会科学的繁荣而笔锋一转,指出this enormous resource并没有对如今的global challenges做出足够的贡献,包括climate change, security, sustainable development and health等。后句指出尽管人类已拥有消除饥饿所需要的农业技术手段,但仍有社会问题存在,这显然是对首句的解释性例证。综合来看,可猜得所选项应该是对前句的解释,其中可能会含有global challenges或其同义词。对比选项,[D]中有global challenges,但论述的是解决问题的方法,与此处语境不符。而[E]选项中的These issues正好与global challenges同义,并且all have root causes in human behavior解释了为什么说this enormous resource is not contributing enough to today’s global challenges。此外,[E]选项直接用for example提出案例:Stemming climate change,对应前面的一项全球挑战climate change。因此[E]选项为正确答案。

  42.[标准答案][F]

  [考点分析]  上下文逻辑关系定位

  [选项分析]  所填空位于段首,应据其后的内容确定。空后的话是This is a shame,其中的this必定是指前句的内容,而且该内容会使人感到shame。而且,根据破折号后对其的进一步解释可知,所填空的内容应该是社会科学界未能做好的一种情况。对比选项,只有[F ]选项明确指出many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems,其中的social scientists正好对应科学界,reluctant表明其消极态度,such problems则对应前段的the problems。所以,可确定[F]选项为正确答案。

  43.[标准答案][B]

  [考点分析] 复现结构定位

  [选项分析] 所填空位于段尾,应据其前文内容来确定。根据该段首句话可知,该段主要论述社会科学关注的是学科内问题,而对有影响力的外界课题关注较少。接下来便对此举例论证,指出包括关键词environmental changed 和 climate change 的论文数量迅速增长。由此可知,所填空应该是继续讲述此类论文的数量问题,且应该是指向首句后半句“关注较少”的内容。对比选项,只有[B]提及到论文数量问题,且指出“这些数量还是很小的”,与原文意思一致,而且还有keywords重现。由此可知,[B]选项是正确答案。

  44.[标准答案][G]

  [考点分析] 代词指代关系定位

  [选项分析] 所填空位于段中,需根据前后句内容或上下文来确定。该空的前句,即该段首句,和后句中均含有the amount,且均指available funding,所以空中一定会出现the amount of funding或其同义语。对比选项,只有[B]和[G]提到数字。[B]直接说明the numbers are still small,这与空后面所说的an adequate amount相互矛盾,故排除[B]。[G]选项national spending …varied from around 4% to 25%符合空中所要求的内容,既有the amount,也有available funding的内容,所以[G]是正确答案。

  45.[标准答案][C]

  [考点分析] 复现结构定位+代词指代关系定位

  [选项分析] 所填空位于段中,需根据前后句内容或上下文来确定。所填空的前句是说,欧盟框架基金计划取消面向社会科学家的基金项目的目的不是为了忽略社会科学家,而是complete opposite。所以,接下来应该是论述其真正的目的。所填空之后的代词that指代所填内容,且该内容should create more collaborative endeavors。对比选项,[C]中的the idea is to…既与空格前The intention is not to…的结构相呼应,而且integrate their work with也与空后的collaborative endeavors相对应,所以[C]应该是答案。此外,[C]中的health and demographic change, food security, ...and secure societies也与空格后文中的global problems形成对应,属于上义下现。所以,[C]是答案。

  参考译文

  社会科学正在蓬勃发展。2005年以来,全世界各领域的社科专家已达近50万名,其工作领域遍及整个学术界。根据2010年度世界社会科学报告,自2000年以来,全球社科学生的数量以每年11%的速度递增。

  然而,如此巨大的资源并未对当今的全球难题做出应有的贡献,包括气候变化、安全、可持续发展和健康等。[41] 这些问题都有人类行为的根源,均需进行行为变革、社会创新和科技进步。例如,阻止气候变化事关变革消费模式、促进税收接纳以及发展清洁能源。[E]人类已拥有消除饥饿所需要的农业技术手段,从基因工程农作物到人造肥料。同样地,这里也有社会问题:食物、财富和业绩的组织和分配。

  [42]尽管存在这些因素,但许多社会科学家似乎并不愿意处理此类问题。在欧洲,有一项削减社会科学研究专项基金并将其整合到可持续发展跨领域课题中的提案,有些社会科学家却对此竭力反对。[F] 这是一种耻辱 —— 社会科学界应该抓住此机会,提高其在现实世界中的影响力。重释著名社会学家约瑟夫·熊彼特的话:没有创造性的破坏,就没有彻底的革新。

  如今,社会科学主要关注的是学科问题和学科内的学术辩论,而不是有外界影响力的课题。有分析表明,自2004年来,含有“环境改变”和“气候变化”关键词的论文急速增加。[43] 然而,(这些论文)的数量仍然很少:在2010年全球发表的10万篇社会科学论文中,仅有约1,600篇包括了这些关键词之一。[B]

  当社会科学家着手处理实际问题时,其眼界往往局限在当地。例如,比利时主要对贫困给其带来的影响感兴趣。社会科学界的工作对知识的总体积累有多大贡献,这一点仍值得怀疑。

  问题并不一定在于可用资金的数额。[44] 在20世纪90年代末期,各国在社会科学和人文学科上的支出占所有研究发展基金的比重从4%到25%不等,包括政府基金、高等教育基金、非盈利基金和公司型基金。在欧洲大多数国家中,这个数字是15%左右。[G]只要使用方向正确,这笔金额就足够了。在如今的经济形势下,抱怨资金不足的社会科学家不应该期待更多。

  关键在于更好地引导这些基金。欧盟框架基金项目长期以来一直有专门面向社会科学家的基金项目。今年,有人提议改变这个体系:展望2020是一个将于2014年颁布的新计划,其中将不包括这个基金项目。这一提议遭到了社会科学家的抗议。但是其目的并不是要忽视社会科学,而是恰恰相反。[45]其立意在于促使社会科学家把自己的工作融入到其他领域中,包括健康和人口变化、食品安全、海洋研究和生态经济、清洁高效能源以及包容、创新、安全的社会。[C]这将会促成更多的合作性努力,为旨在解决全球难题的发展项目提供帮助。

  Part C  Translation

  46.【译文总结】然而,人们在观看那些无家可归者所创建的花园的照片时,会感到深深的震撼。虽然这些花园风格迥异,却在装饰和创造性表达之外透露出了其他多种基本的人类诉求。

  47. 【译文总结】无论地方多么简陋,寻求一片静谧的圣土是人类特有的需求,而动物需要的则仅仅是避难栖息之所。

  48.【译文总结】无家可归者的花园实际上是无家可归的,却给城市带来一种以前没有的或者并非如此明显的环境形式。

  49.【译文总结】我们大多数人会陷入精神萎靡的状态,并常常将此归咎为一些心理原因,直到某天我们发现自己置身在一座花园之中,烦闷如变魔术般消除殆尽。

  50.【译文总结】即使“花园”一词的使用在某种意义上有些随性,但正是这种对自然的或含蓄或明确的表达,证明了用其来描述这些人造建筑是完全合乎情理的。

  参考译文

  据推测,花园的产生源于建造者个人的一种基本需求: 创造性表现的需要。毫无疑问,花园表达了一种创造、表现、使用和美化非现实的欲望,而自我表现则是人类的一种基本欲望。46 然而,人们在观看那些无家可归者所创建的花园的照片时,会感到深深的震撼。虽然这些花园风格迥异,却在装饰和创造性之外透露出了其他多种基本的人类诉求。

  其诉求之一与动荡中谋求平静的欲望密切相关,借用T.S.Eliot的话就是“纷繁世界中的一片静土”。 47 无论地方多么简陋,寻求一片静谧的圣土是人类特有的需求,而动物需要的则仅仅是避难栖息之所。这种区别示如此的明显,以至于在栖息之所缺乏的地方,静土变得更为迫切需要。平静的心态是可以通过构建个人与其所处环境的关系而实现的。48 无家可归者的花园实际上是无家可归的,却给城市带来一种以前没有的或者并非如此明显的环境形式。这样,他们给不会言语的环境带来部分宁静,并在其中表明了自己的立场。

  这些花园所表达或源起的另一种诉求或需要是其所固有的,但我们却几乎从未意识到其对我们的持久要求。当我们失去绿色、植物和树木时, 49 我们大多数人会陷入精神萎靡的状态,并常常将此归咎为一些心理原因,直到某天我们发现自己置身在一座花园之中,烦闷如变魔术般消除殆尽。在纽约市许多无家可归者的花园中,真正的植物栽培是不可行的,但是即便如此,表达尝试材料运用、颜色组合、小水池、花瓣、树叶以及动物标本的作品随处可见。从某种基本层面上而言,这里展出的各种奇幻元素看来都来自自然界。50 即使“花园”一词的使用在某种意义上有些随性,但正是这种对自然的或含蓄或明确的表达,证明了用其来描述这些人造建筑是完全合乎情理的。从中,我们可以看到以离奇的具象派形式呈现出的生物自卫本能 —— 一种与非人类进行联系的渴望。

  Section III Writing

  Part A

  参考范文:

  Dear professor,

  I am the chairman of the Students’ of Foreign Language Department in Peking University. We plan to hold an English speech contest and I am writing to ask whether you can honor us to be a judge for the competition.

  The contest will be held in Room 201, Teaching Building No. 3 on next Sunday, January 12, 2013. It will begin at 6:30 and may last for 3 hours. Participants are excellent students fluent in spoken English from different majors in our university. Judges to be invited include another three professors and language experts who are very familiar to you.

  We would be greatly honored if you can show your presence and provide us with your valuable comments. Please contact us at 1234567 if you can come.

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  Part B

  参考范文

  Recently, there has been a growing concern among the public over the topic of the choice after graduation. As is described in the picture, a group of graduates are facing various roads to go, such as searching for jobs, pursuing further study, going abroad and becoming entrepreneurs. The picture intends to convey us that, as adults, college graduates have to make their own decisions about future life.

  After graduation, college students should choose future life based on their own realities and dreams. For those, who are eager to become economically independent and to put practice what they have learned in college, taking a job or doing poineering work may be satisfying and rewarding. Getting established as a bread-winner after graduation is their main desire. By contrast, others who want to take advantage of the favorable conditions in college, however, ought to try to enroll in graduate programs inside or outside. For them, a Master's degree or even a Doctoral degree represents a much more ambitious goal than a bachelor's degree, because they cherish lifetime success and interest more in academic achievements than money.

  It is sensible that we should take a rational attitude towards the decisive choice. For the part of my own, getting a higher degree abroad has long been my dream. I’m a strong believer that one should do more research and learn more while he or she is still young.

  参考译文

  近来,大家越发为毕业选择的话题担忧起来。正如图片中所描述的,一群毕业生正面临各种道路要走,比如找工作、继续升学、出国、创业等。这幅画旨在告诉我们,作为成年人,大学毕业生必须自己决定对未来生活的选择。

  毕业后,大学生应根据自身实际情况和梦想来选择未来的生活。对于那些渴望经济独立、实践所学的人来来说,找一份工作或自我创业可能是就就期盼而颇有裨益的选择。毕业后找到一份满意的工作是他们的重要理想。但是,相比之下,那些想利用学校有利条件的人,则应该努力考取校内外的研究生。对他们来说,与本科学位相比,硕士学位甚至博士学位意味着更雄心勃勃的目标,因为他们把学术成就而不是金钱视为终生的成功和兴趣所在。

  我们应该以理性的态度明智地做出果断选择。就我自己而言,在国外获得更高的学位一直是我的梦想。我坚信,人应该趁自己年轻时多做研究、多加学习。

【责任编辑:李硕】

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